Mobile Computer Technology

Mobile Technology

Mobile technology is the technology used in cellular communication. Mobile code division multiple access (CDMA) technology has evolved quickly during the last few years. Ever since the beginning of this millennium, a standard mobile device has progressed from just a simple two-way pager to a mobile phone, GPS navigation device, a fixed web browser and instant messaging client, and a handheld game console. Numerous experts argue that the future of computer technology is in mobile computing with wireless networking. Mobile computing by way of tablet computers is becoming more popular. Tablets are now available on 3G as well as 4G networks.

4G Networking

One of the most significant features of 4G mobile networks is the dominance of high-speed packet transmissions or traffic burst within channels. The same codes used for 2G/3G networks are applied to 4G mobile or wireless networks. Recent studies have indicated that traditional multilayer network architecture based on the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model may not be suitable for 4G mobile network, whereby transactions of short packets will be the vital part of traffic within the channels. As the packets from different mobiles carry totally differing channel physiognomies, the receiver should execute all required algorithms, such as channel estimation, interactions with all upper layers and so on, within a limited time period.

5G Networks

Five years from now (that being in 2020), humanity will be surrounded with faster, more powerful wireless networks. Presently, the networks that drive our smartphones and Internet based connected devices are mainly based on 3G and 4G technologies. However, higher-performance fifth-generation technology, referred to as 5G, is coming, and it promises to take us to greater heights.

5G is considered key in regards to “The Internet of Things” (IoT), the name given to the idea of encompassing just about anything and everything into the Internet. Billions of sensors will be built into cars, appliances, health monitors, security systems, door locks and wearables. Gartner, an Analyst firm predicts that the amount of networked devices will rise up from approximately 5 billion in 2015 to 25 billion by 2020.

According to Femi Adeyemi, lead mobile architect at Fujitsu. We shall have tags that will let us know of our children’s whereabouts and when they get back home and cars will be autonomously managed along the highways.

Additionally, 5G networks will be roughly 20 times faster than 4G networks. That speed opens up fascinating new capabilities. Self-driving cars can make time-critical decisions. Video chats will create the illusion of feeling like being all in the same room. And cities will be able to monitor traffic congestion, parking demands and pollution levels — and in response feed that data to your smart vehicle in real time or any smart device used for monitoring purposes.

In terms of data speed, according to the International Telecommunication Union(ITU), they decided that 5G compliant network will have to offer data speeds of up to 20Gbps(Gigabits per second) of which is 20 times faster than the 1 Gbps specifications for 4G networks. With 5G networks, it will open up access to higher 4K video content resolution as well as holographic technology via mobile networks. The 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games will give a demonstration of 5G technology in action.

Operating Systems

Various types of mobile operating systems (OS) are available for smartphones which included Android, IOS, Blackberry OS, WebOS, Symbian, Bada and Windows mobile. Among the most popular are the Android and Apple iPhone. The Android mobile operating system (OS) is developed by Google and is the first fully open source mobile OS, meaning that it is free for any cell phone mobile network.

Since 2008 customizable operating systems allow the user to download applications or apps such as games, GPS, Utilities, as well as other tools. Any user can create and publish their own apps e.g. to Apple’s App store. The Palm Pre that uses WebOS which has functionality over the internet and can support Internet-centric programming languages such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), HTML as well as JavaScript. The Research in Motion (RIM) Blackberry is a smartphone that has a multimedia player and third-party software installation.

Future of Smartphones

The next generation of smartphones are going to be context-aware, which will take the advantage of the growing availability of embedded physical sensors as well as data exchange capabilities. One of the key features applying to this is that the smartphones will begin keeping track of personal data, but adapt to anticipate the information needed based on individual intentions. There will be all-new applications released with the new phones, and one of them will be the X-Ray device that reveals information about any location at which the phone is pointed. One thing that companies are doing is development of software that will take advantage of more accurate location-sensing data. How it has been described is that they want to make the phone a virtual mouse that is able to click the real world. For example, if you point the phone’s camera while having the live feed open, it will show text with the building and save the location of the building for future use.

Along with the future of smartphones will come the future of another device that will be known as the “Ominitouch.” This device will allow applications to be viewed and used on the arm, hand, desk, wall, or any other everyday surface. The device will use a touch sensor interface that will allow the user to access the user to access all the functions through the use of finger touch. It was developed at Carnegie Mellon University. This device uses a projector and camera that is worn on the person’s shoulder, with no controls other than the person’s fingers.

Conclusion

Over the past decade, smartphones have taken the world by storm and recently, tablets have also made their entry into the arena as well. These mobile devices now have a significant impact on our daily lives and are in fact redefining the way we access information as well as communicate with others. This is due to not only the hardware but the specialized software as well that these devices run on, and most outstandingly, their operating systems. Just like a PC can run different operating systems (like Windows, Linux, BSD etc.) or different versions of similar operating system (such as Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7/8 and now Windows 10), most smartphones and tablets can now also run different versions of operating systems they were made for, and in special cases, they might even be able to run operating systems they weren’t made for. The future for mobile technology is surely looking bright.

A Muse on Technology – Is it a Help Or Hindrance to Growth?

It has become too easy for news media, financial statistical trackers, advertiser’s and experts in their chosen professions to give us detailed, micro managed information at an incredible pace in which we really have no tools or experience to manage in relation to our lives.

In my humble opinion too rapid as it leaves no room to debate and no room for enjoyment. No sooner do we grasp one idea and the movers and shakers set out another 10 which are quickly discussed, refuted and counteract the one we have just spent time considering.

The real problem lies in the fact that these ideas shape the very foundation of our existence and most of us cannot keep up. Today caffeine is good, tomorrow it causes cancer. Eggs are good for you one day and now they cause high cholesterol. Smoking was cool now it is taboo.

Bottled water in yet a mere 5 years later, the goal now is to ban it. This leads me to the idea that high emotional I.Q. today is really about those who can adjust to the rapid changes of information in the market place and not what is scored on a test.

Toys are no exception to this rule either. No sooner does one electronic gadget come into the market, and we are flooded with new technological toys. We’ve experienced 8 track to cassette to records to CD’s and now the IPOD- all the money in which we invest to form collections, quickly disappears with the rapid changes in technology – you no longer can see where you invested your hard earned dollars and that was all in less than thirty years. There goes your hard, earned money but more importantly, it is impossible to keep up.

VHS – DVD’s – Blue Ray – each needing new machines, and the equipment you own has not even begun to wear out. Computers, televisions, automobiles, the impact is financially devastating to each of us. Credit cards maxed out, savings lost through the stock market, house foreclosures, and job elimination is where we end up. This is the reality of technology and its effect on life. You can see the challenge and this is what we each must now examine for our self.

It begs the question of, What is quality of life? What is it we really want? What is it that will make us happy? What is it we really need for our families, relationships, spouses, or jobs?

We know we are not fairing so well when the divorce rate is now between 40-50% and our alcoholism, gambling, and drug stats are not that much better. By taking the time to answer these important life questions, we may start to lift the weight of stress and depression resting on most of our shoulders.

So is technology a hindrance to growth or does it push us to become more by offering us more? This is not an easy question because in many cases Technology has become a trade off for other areas. Technology has made writing essays, homework assignments, magazine articles, books, business reports, sales presentation all much easier to accomplish. Rules of editing, grammar, spelling, and punctuation can easily be repaired by any software program and publishing and spreading information, whether good or bad, is quick today due to the internet.

We can all look like geniuses by the stroke of a key on our keyboards. We appear to all be in an equal playing field, if we choose to utilize the tools. The flip side to this is don’t we need to understand the basics of grammar, style, editing in order to deliver our best works? Don’t we need to know the fundamentals of math and science to become great Doctors and Scientists?

Isn’t it important for our Brain to strengthen through education, practice, trial and error? Don’t short cuts lead to poor quality of workmanship? Doesn’t cheap labor produce cheap products, which don’t even last a year before they disappear from your environment? Are you not tired of the overselling of ad campaigns that promise you a lot but delivers little? Take this and you will look 20 years younger.

We can say technology provides us from a relief of physical strains. We no longer tend to the fields with horse and plough. We no longer have to hang our wash out to dry. We no longer have to wash the dishes. Ah yes, life does seem simpler doesn’t it? Or does it?

Isn’t our food being made in China? Is this good? Aren’t we all becoming overweight due to lack of physical activity? Is this good? Can we financially afford to put one more piece of technology on our credit card? Do these “things” increase our life span? Do we have too much time on our hands to play computer games, chat in chat rooms, watch reality shows, or, do we have none as we are working too hard to pay for all these toys? Do we even have time to think or have we become robotic in our tasks?

Even the skill for developing the mental capacity to process (the brain) massive amounts of information is not required as we have technological tools to rely on for memory, mathematical equations, and with the internet, information is readily at our fingertips so we no longer even have to rely on our memory.

Difficult trade-offs, and much due to the real question of – to the moon or not to the moon! So you can see answering the question is technology good for our growth is a difficult one indeed.

I believe technology can be good for growth when we incorporate, strong physical, mental, family, relationship, and most importantly, financial goals in our life utilizing the tools of technology as a mechanism of assisting us in a more peaceful balance.

If we learn to understand technology is just a means for making life simpler then we can choose, by not only reflecting back and in the present, but also reflecting on the future, protecting us from falling into the trap of following the trends. Allowing us to orchestrate the color of our canvas as to what we choose it to be.

With a clear focus on health, wellness, spirituality, nutrition, listening to our own inner cues, we stand a better chance of longevity. With a clear focus on our professional career we can focus our finances towards the development of skills which will enhance our earning potential. With a clear focus on family and relationships we will get an understanding of their needs and wants which we can work into our time restraints and financial budgets.

Divorce is expensive. Weight loss programs are expensive. Gambling and alcohol addictions are expensive. Replacing a car every four years is expensive. Keeping up with the latest computer gadgets and software programs is expensive.

When we take the time to reflect on our growth, we get a clearer understanding of what our real needs are and thus can prevent some costly errors. So, in the end, technology doesn’t hurt growth, but without a plan and a clear understanding of ourselves, it sure hinders it!

Revenue-Based Financing for Technology Companies With No Hard Assets

WHAT IS REVENUE-BASED FINANCING?

Revenue-based financing (RBF), also known as royalty-based financing, is a unique form of financing provided by RBF investors to small- to mid-sized businesses in exchange for an agreed-upon percentage of a business’ gross revenues.

The capital provider receives monthly payments until his invested capital is repaid, along with a multiple of that invested capital.

Investment funds that provide this unique form of financing are known as RBF funds.

TERMINOLOGY

- The monthly payments are referred to as royalty payments.

- The percentage of revenue paid by the business to the capital provider is referred to as the royalty rate.

- The multiple of invested capital that is paid by the business to the capital provider is referred to as a cap.

CASE STUDY

Most RBF capital providers seek a 20% to 25% return on their investment.

Let’s use a very simple example: If a business receives $1M from an RBF capital provider, the business is expected to repay $200,000 to $250,000 per year to the capital provider. That amounts to about $17,000 to $21,000 paid per month by the business to the investor.

As such, the capital provider expects to receive the invested capital back within 4 to 5 years.

WHAT IS THE ROYALTY RATE?

Each capital provider determines its own expected royalty rate. In our simple example above, we can work backwards to determine the rate.

Let’s assume that the business produces $5M in gross revenues per year. As indicated above, they received $1M from the capital provider. They are paying $200,000 back to the investor each year.

The royalty rate in this example is $200,000/$5M = 4%

VARIABLE ROYALTY RATE

The royalty payments are proportional to the top line of the business. Everything else being equal, the higher the revenues that the business generates, the higher the monthly royalty payments the business makes to the capital provider.

Traditional debt consists of fixed payments. Therefore, the RBF scenario seems unfair. In a way, the business owners are being punished for their hard work and success in growing the business.

In order to remedy this problem, most royalty financing agreements incorporate a variable royalty rate schedule. In this way, the higher the revenues, the lower the royalty rate applied.

The exact sliding scale schedule is negotiated between the parties involved and clearly outlined in the term sheet and contract.

HOW DOES A BUSINESS EXIT THE REVENUE-BASED FINANCING ARRANGEMENT?

Every business, especially technology businesses, that grow very quickly will eventually outgrow their need for this form of financing.

As the business balance sheet and income statement become stronger, the business will move up the financing ladder and attract the attention of more traditional financing solution providers. The business may become eligible for traditional debt at cheaper interest rates.

As such, every revenue-based financing agreement outlines how a business can buy-down or buy-out the capital provider.

Buy-Down Option:

The business owner always has an option to buy down a portion of the royalty agreement. The specific terms for a buy-down option vary for each transaction.

Generally, the capital provider expects to receive a certain specific percentage (or multiple) of its invested capital before the buy-down option can be exercised by the business owner.

The business owner can exercise the option by making a single payment or multiple lump-sum payments to the capital provider. The payment buys down a certain percentage of the royalty agreement. The invested capital and monthly royalty payments will then be reduced by a proportional percentage.

Buy-Out Option:

In some cases, the business may decide it wants to buy out and extinguish the entire royalty financing agreement.

This often occurs when the business is being sold and the acquirer chooses not to continue the financing arrangement. Or when the business has become strong enough to access cheaper sources of financing and wants to restructure itself financially.

In this scenario, the business has the option to buy out the entire royalty agreement for a predetermined multiple of the aggregate invested capital. This multiple is commonly referred to as a cap. The specific terms for a buy-out option vary for each transaction.

USE OF FUNDS

There are generally no restrictions on how RBF capital can be used by a business. Unlike in a traditional debt arrangement, there are little to no restrictive debt covenants on how the business can use the funds.

The capital provider allows the business managers to use the funds as they see fit to grow the business.

Acquisition financing:

Many technology businesses use RBF funds to acquire other businesses in order to ramp up their growth. RBF capital providers encourage this form of growth because it increases the revenues that their royalty rate can be applied to.

As the business grows by acquisition, the RBF fund receives higher royalty payments and therefore benefits from the growth. As such, RBF funding can be a great source of acquisition financing for a technology company.

BENEFITS OF REVENUE-BASED FINANCING TO TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES

No assets, No personal guarantees, No traditional debt:

Technology businesses are unique in that they rarely have traditional hard assets like real estate, machinery, or equipment. Technology companies are driven by intellectual capital and intellectual property.

These intangible IP assets are difficult to value. As such, traditional lenders give them little to no value. This makes it extremely difficult for small- to mid-sized technology companies to access traditional financing.

Revenue-based financing does not require a business to collateralize the financing with any assets. No personal guarantees are required of the business owners. In a traditional bank loan, the bank often requires personal guarantees from the owners, and pursues the owners’ personal assets in the event of a default.

RBF capital provider’s interests are aligned with the business owner:

Technology businesses can scale up faster than traditional businesses. As such, revenues can ramp up quickly, which enables the business to pay down the royalty quickly. On the other hand, a poor product brought to market can destroy the business revenues just as quickly.

A traditional creditor such as a bank receives fixed debt payments from a business debtor regardless of whether the business grows or shrinks. During lean times, the business makes the exact same debt payments to the bank.

An RBF capital provider’s interests are aligned with the business owner. If the business revenues decrease, the RBF capital provider receives less money. If the business revenues increase, the capital provider receives more money.

As such, the RBF provider wants the business revenues to grow quickly so it can share in the upside. All parties benefit from the revenue growth in the business.

High Gross Margins:

Most technology businesses generate higher gross margins than traditional businesses. These higher margins make RBF affordable for technology businesses in many different sectors.

RBF funds seek businesses with high margins that can comfortably afford the monthly royalty payments.

No equity, No board seats, No loss of control:

The capital provider shares in the success of the business but does not receive any equity in the business. As such, the cost of capital in an RBF arrangement is cheaper in financial & operational terms than a comparable equity investment.

RBF capital providers have no interest in being involved in the management of the business. The extent of their active involvement is reviewing monthly revenue reports received from the business management team in order to apply the appropriate RBF royalty rate.

A traditional equity investor expects to have a strong voice in how the business is managed. He expects a board seat and some level of control.

A traditional equity investor expects to receive a significantly higher multiple of his invested capital when the business is sold. This is because he takes higher risk as he rarely receives any financial compensation until the business is sold.

Cost of Capital:

The RBF capital provider receives payments each month. It does not need the business to be sold in order to earn a return. This means that the RBF capital provider can afford to accept lower returns. This is why it is cheaper than traditional equity.

On the other hand, RBF is riskier than traditional debt. A bank receives fixed monthly payments regardless of the financials of the business. The RBF capital provider can lose his entire investment if the company fails.

On the balance sheet, RBF sits between a bank loan and equity. As such, RBF is generally more expensive than traditional debt financing, but cheaper than traditional equity.

Funds can be received in 30 to 60 days:

Unlike traditional debt or equity investments, RBF does not require months of due diligence or complex valuations.

As such, the turnaround time between delivering a term sheet for financing to the business owner and the funds disbursed to the business can be as little as 30 to 60 days.

Businesses that need money immediately can benefit from this quick turnaround time.

Technology

What is technology? I bet that everyone you ask will give you a different definition, depending on the things he/she uses. I’m sure your mother will tell you that technology makes her life easy because of all the gadgets that were invented, your younger brother will say technology means latest generation computers and high detailed games, you will probably say that it is your mobile phone. I will say for me technology is semi-cocked food. It was probably the best invention ever. But it’s just me.

So, we have established how we, the mortals, see technology. But wouldn’t be really interesting to see what it really is? Well it deals with how a species customs and knowledge of instruments meant to ease the life and how it affects its capability to fit into the environment. This is a general definition.

We, the humans see it as a result of the interaction of different sciences and engineering.

Technology is one of those terms that actually cannot be defined. It cam mean everything from a main board to a way of organizing a factory. It can refer to practically everything, because all of the things around us were, at a certain point technological breakdowns.

How can we use it? As such, in specific areas like “medical technology”, describing only one aspect of science or in expressions like “state-of-the-art-technology”, which is by far more abstract.

We have used technology for as far as we existed. It is in our blood to discover all kinds of things meant to ease our life. And if they do not exist, you can bet wee will invent them. Starting with the discovery of fire and with the adaptation of all the things we find in nature to our needs and ending with the World Wide Web and the space satellites launched into the orbit, we managed to turn everything in our favor. And that is technology. Well, as our ancestors used to say, since the invention of the wheel we’ve learned a great deal about controlling our environment.

Technology is every ware around us, permitting us to interact at a global scale. Imagine that! With just a click you can see your friend from the other side of the world in real time. Not just talk to her, but see her, see what she does and how she reacts.

But technology brought upon us a great curse too. We didn’t invent only good things. There are a lot of destructive gadgets that do not ease our existence, but only complicate it, or end it. Bang-Bang! And that’s not your kid’s gun, but a real one that can end your life in a heart beat.

All in all technology is what makes the world go round every day. Well, not exactly. Magic, or the laws of nature make that. Technology is everything else, all the things that can’t be blamed on magic. Ant that’s about 99,9% of the things that you use in life. So, VIVA Technology.

The Chapter of Biotechnology – Antisense Technology

With the development of molecular biology and genetic engineering, gene therapy has developed rapidly. Antisense technology is one of the kind. The technology, with the principle of nucleic acid hybridization, can design antisense nucleic acid that aims at a certain target sequence to restrain the expression of specific genes, including antisense RNA, antisense DNA and ribozymes. Moreover, all of these are obtained through synthesis.

Then, as for antisense RNA, it refers to RNA molecules that have complementary sequence with target RNA such as mRNA, and it can participate in the regulation of gene expression by conducting base pairing with target RNA. When it comes to antisense nucleic acid, it refers to those RNA or DNA molecules that have precisely complementary functions with specific mRNA, which can also block the translating process to a certain degree. The technology that can specifically block some gene expressions to make low or no expression is generally called antisense nucleic acid technology. Based on such technology, antisense ribozyme can play an important role in restraining the over-expression of some harmful genes and uncontrolled genes. As antisense ribozyme technology has developed in a mature status, it has been gradually applied to the research of some parasitic diseases. On one hand, this technology prevents the combination between ribosome and mRNA through binding with target mRNA to form the steric hindrance effect. On the other hand, after the combination, the reaction can activate the endogenous RNase or ribozyme and then degrade mRNA.

Generally speaking, compared with other conventional medicines, antisense nucleic acid, as one of the gene therapy drugs, has many advantages, such as high specificity, high biological activity, high efficiency, optimal drug design, low toxicity, safety, and so on. For example, antisense oligonucleotides can carry specific genetic information that is complementary to the changing order of base pairing. Furthermore, in a fundamental aspect, such technology contains available natural sequence information so that it can be regarded as the most reasonable drug design. In addition, there isn’t obvious toxicity in antisense nucleic acid, so it will be degraded eventually, which avoids some certain dangers.

In brief, the rapid development of antisense technology has provided a larger stage for the research of parasitology, which enriches the strategy for gene therapy in parasitic diseases. However, to be honest, current antisense nucleic acid technology still has some problems. For instance, some antisense nucleic acid molecules that exist naturally are difficult to be separated and purified. Therefore, more efforts should be done to promote the rapid advance of such technology.